Drawing a Dialogue is a podcast discussing comics in historical + educational contexts by Cathy G. Johnson + e jackson.
Episode 12: In the longest episode yet, Cathy + e present research on how racism affected the development of the visual language of cartooning. Spanning the 1700s to today, this episode explores the history of art education, caricature and how-to-draw books, and maps the history of minstrelsy in America, creating connections that informed early cartooning. In-depth research offers multiple samples of primary sources, including the art of “physiognomy,” the pseudoscience of judging character from facial features.
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Episode Citation (chronologically as mentioned in podcast):
- Drawing a Dialogue, Episode 10: The Canon - Link
- Rhode Island School of Design (RISD) Fleet Library Special Collections - RISD
- Rhode Island School of Design (RISD) Museum Prints, Drawings and Photographs Collection - RISD Museum
- Bradley W. Gorham, 1999, “Stereotypes in the Media: So What”, Howard Journal of Communication - Link
- Rosenthal, A., Bindman, D., & Randolph, A. W. (2016). No Laughing Matter: Visual Humor in Ideas of Race, Nationality, and Ethnicity. Hanover, NH: Dartmouth College Press.
- Frank Felsenstein chapter from No Laughing Matter (full citation above)
- Katherine Hart chapter from No Laughing Matter (full citation above)
- Essays on Physiognomy by John Casper Lavater (orig. 1770s), translated by Thomas Holcroft (reprint 1853), RISD Fleet Library, SPECIAL BF 843 .L3 1850 (Clarification from episode: This edition was published in 1853, but was originally written in the 1770s, which leads into the popularity of caricature in Europe in the 1790s)
- Alan J Spector, 1998, Cultural Diversity and the US Media, “Disney does Diversity: The Social Context of Racial-Ethnic Imagery” - SUNY Press
- “A History of Slavery in the United States” - National Geographic
- Marlon Riggs, Ethnic Notions, 1986 - CA Newsreel
- Tracy K. Smith - Poetry Foundation
- Nicholas Sammond, 2015, Birth of an Industry: Blackface Minstrelsy and the Rise of American Animation - Duke University Press
- "Vaudeville," - Wikipedia
- Gordon, I. (2002). Comic Strips and Consumer Culture, 1890-1945. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
- "Vestigial" definition, Google
- Drawing a Dialogue, Episode 4: The Wertham Special - Link
- Leonard Rifas, Racial Imagery, Racism, Individualism, and Underground Comix - ImageTexT
- Scott McLean, 1998, Cultural Diversity and the US Media “Minorities in Newsprint Cartoons” - SUNY Press
- Saladin Ahmed, 2014, “How the Comics Code Killed the Weird, Experimental, Progressive Golden Age of Comics” - Buzzfeed
- Hari Kondabolu, 2017, The Problem With Apu - TruTV
- J. D. Harding (1700s), Elementary Art or, the use of the chalk and lead pencil, RISD Museum, INV2006562 Elementary Art
- Jacques Callot (17th century), Images of beggars, RISD Museum, 45.0.43
- G. N. Woodward + Isaac Cruickshank (1792), Original Caricature Water-color Sketches, RISD Museum, D-2 48.110.1-63a,b,c,d
- Francis Grose (1791), Rules for Drawing Caricatures, London, RISD Fleet Library, SPECIAL NC 1473 .G7 1791
- Davis, E. B. (2003). Life Drawing from Ape to Human: Charles Darwin's Theories of Evolution and William Rimmer's Art Anatomy. Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide, 2(2),
- Borough Johnson, S.G.A. (1931), Figure Drawing and Portraiture in lead pencil, chalk and charcoal, RISD Fleet Library, SPECIAL NC 765 .J6 1931
- Paul H.D. Kaplan chapter from No Laughing Matter (full citation above)
- Famous Artists Cartoon Course (1956), RISD Fleet Library, SPECIAL OVERSIZE NC 1320 .F22 v. 
- Stan Lee + John Buscema (1978, reprint 1984), How To Draw Comics the Marvel Way, New York: Simon and Schuster
- Hart, Christopher (2002), Anime mania : how to draw characters for Japanese animation, New York : Watson-Guptill Publications
- Nancy S. Parks, a. (2004). Bamboozled: A Visual Culture Text for Looking at Cultural Practices of Racism. Art Education, (2), 14.
Letters To The Editor
Susan Stryker, Queer Pulp: Perverted Passions from the Golden Age of the Paperback
What are we reading?
- Total Mood Killer by merritt k + Niina Pollari - Link
Theme song by Downtown Boys
Photos from primary source materials, copyright the Rhode Island School of Design Fleet Library + Museum: